The constitution is the basic and main law of any state; it implies the proclamation and guarantee of the rights and freedoms of citizens. The norms of the constitution also presuppose a description of the social system of the state, the dominant form of government, the methods of territorial organization. The document also describes the process of formation of the central and regional governing bodies, the coat of arms and flag, and the text of the national anthem.
In simple words, the Constitution is the basic law of the country, which has legal consolidation at the level of the highest instances. It prescribes a number of basic provisions that help to structure life in the state. Important institutions, norms, and values are fixed in the document, as well as the main points related to the regulation of the work of the authorities.
If we summarize the above, we can deduce the main features of the constitution as the highest legal document of the country.
The functions of the constitution are notable for their breadth – a legal act of this type is designed to regulate almost all spheres of life of citizens. Several main factors can be distinguished:
The very notion of the Constitution means that it establishes and protects the economic, social, political and legal relations in the society of the country. Summarizing all of the above, we can conclude that this legal act is aimed at ensuring the sovereignty of the people, the division of power into three main branches (legislative, executive, judicial), as well as guarantees of the rights and freedoms of citizens.
In many ways, the constitution is meant to reflect the characteristics of the state and its citizens. It helps in matters of self-identification, becomes the basis for the formation of the worldview of citizens, allows for the control of various spheres of relations in the cross-section of man-human and man-state.
In form, a constitution exists in two basic varieties – legal and factual. These two types have several distinctive characteristics. The first version is aimed at regulating legal relations between subjects. The second variety deals with actually existing relations: describes the intricacies of their existence, the rights, and obligations of the parties, and much more.
Constitutional norms can be either rigid or flexible. Flexible regulations can be changed by adopting the appropriate law. A rigid constitution can only be amended if a whole set of actions are followed. In order to adopt amendments, a referendum is held, a vote of the deputies begins, and ratification by individual state subjects may also be necessary.
There are two other types of constitution, depending on the duration of the constitution. These are permanent and temporary normative legal acts.
If we talk about this document in its modern meaning, then it is worth saying that the first constitution appeared in the United States. It was a set of basic laws, the function of which was the legal regulation of various relations. At that time this unique document became the necessary legal basis, under which the whole civil democratic system was adjusted.
But the prototypes of the constitution were much earlier. Even a few centuries before our era, laws were beginning to be created to regulate the relations of citizens. Solon, Servius Tullius and Lycurgus were the first to create a legal code for human life. But the document was not always recorded in writing.
Thus, the very first constitution in the usual sense is a document of the United States. It had legal force, was fixed on paper, and continues to function to this day.