Fascism is a totalitarian form of government that was popular between 1919 and 1945, but became taboo after the Holocaust and the defeat of the Axis states in 1945.
Before proceeding to the analysis of what fascism really is, it is necessary to understand the confusion that exists around the use and understanding of this term. Of course, the definition of “fascism” or “fascist” causes negative emotions in almost all people, but, unfortunately, in most cases this word is used as a misinterpretation of the context. In simple terms, this means that people most often use this word without knowing its true meaning.
The most important misconception is the fact that fascism is often confused with Nazism. Many people consider it synonymous with white power. But we must remember that there were “non-white” and racially mixed countries at one time had fascist governments, including Brazil, Mexico, Japan, and Zaire. Thus, some parallels should be drawn between fascism and Nazism. Nazism was basically the concept of Hitler’s Germany, which aspired specifically to racial purity. Italian fascism was based precisely on the political nation.
The word “fascism” comes from the Italian word “fascio”, which literally means “bundle” or “union”. In Italy, a bunch of rods tied around an ax served as a symbol of the fascist regime, which symbolized the solidarity and strength of the country.
In its original meaning, “fascism” referred to the Italian fascists under the rule of Benito Mussolini. The authoritative document on this subject is The Doctrine of Fascism. It appeared as an entry for the term in an Italian encyclopedia published in 1932. Mussolini himself was identified as the author of this document, although the real and most likely author is the philosopher Giovanni Gentile. It was he who helped Mussolini formulate his political philosophy.
In any case, this political system and ideology is banned throughout the world, due to the terrible consequences that the world faced during the Second World War. However, fascism was not completely defeated in World War II. All this time he successfully disguised himself under the guise of anti-fascism. Many of its aspects were actively manifested in the communist Soviet Union and were fully revealed in Putin’s Russia. Although the Putin regime publicly calls itself anti-fascist, it contains all the signs of fascism and Nazism in a modified form. This new mixture of Russian fascism and Nazism is now called Ruscism.
(in simple terms for better understanding)
In addition to the standard signs of fascism, there is a list of 14 signs formed by Umberto Eco to characterize fascism. In general, this list is similar to the main list, but it is more extensive.
Umberto Eco is an Italian scientist, philosopher, historian, literary critic, and writer. In his view, fascism contains the following features:
Populism is a policy that appeals to the broad masses and promises them a quick and easy solution to acute social problems.
Elitarism is a concept that popularizes the positivity of the formation of elite classes in society.
The term newspeak was introduced by Orwell in the novel “1984”, where it was appointed the official language of English socialism.